A preprint at arXiv argues that most Chinese paternal lineages can be grouped into three subclades within Y-chromosome haplogroup O3, and that these expanded rapidly during the East Asian Neolithic. Moreover, it includes a series of maps showing early migration routes of modern humans across Eurasia. These maps suggest that Y-chromosome haplogroups R1a and R1b broke away from R1 about 14.8K years ago somewhere in West Central Asia, and then non-Indo-European groups loaded with R1b migrated to the Atlantic fringe via a route north of the Black Sea. R1a is singled out as the Proto-Indo-European marker, which makes sense based on its latest phylogeny and elevated presence in various ancient samples (see here).
Haplogroup P diverged into Q and R at ~24.1 kya, slightly before the LGM. Most Q individuals in Han Chinese belong to the Q1a1-M120 clade, while R’s in Han Chinese are mostly R1a1-M17. The separation events of R1 and R2, and R1a and R1b are estimated here at 19.9 and 14.8 kya, respectively. R1b roamed till the Atlantic coast, forming some of the non-Indo-European groups (e.g. Basque)32.Yen et al., Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Are Descendants of Three Neolithic Super-grandfathers, arXiv:1310.3897v1 [q-bio.PE]